CIICA’s President empanelled as an arbitrator with the Shenzhen Court of International Arbitration (SCIA), also known as the South China International Economic and Trade Arbitration Commission
SCIA is one of China’s leading international arbitration institutions and also China’s first arbitration institution whose governance structure was established through legislation.
CIICA has been granted observer status by the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) to its sessions of Working Groups II (Dispute Settlement) and III (Investor-State Dispute Settlement Reform) as well as its annual sessions
CIICA’s President invited to speak at the Malaysian Institute of Arbitrators’s 5th Annual Law Review and Conference
CIICA’s President, Mr. Rana Sajjad, was invited by the Malaysian Institute of Arbitrators (MIArb) to speak at MIArb’s 5th Annual Law Review and Conference at the Asian International Arbitration Centre (AIAC) in Kuala Lumpur. Mr. Sajjad was a member of the panel on international developments in arbitration and spoke on recent court judgments and legislative developments in arbitration in Pakistan. Other speakers at the conference include distinguished members of the Bench and global practitioners of arbitration:
CIICA’s President invited by UNCITRAL to attend a special NY Convention celebratory event at the UN Headquarters on June 28, 2018
Mr. Rana Sajjad, CIICA’s President, was invited by the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) to attend a special event at the UN Headquarters to celebrate the 60th anniversary of the New York Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards.
During the event, the UNCITRAL Secretary mentioned Lahore as one of the cities in which the NY Convention celebratory conference was held. We are pleased to see Pakistan being acknowledged at the UN because of CIICA’s 3rd anniversary conference in Lahore that also celebrated the NY Convention’s 60th anniversary:
Global Arbitration Review (GAR) publishes report on CIICA’s 3rd anniversary conference
GAR, the world’s leading resource on international arbitration news publishes a report on CIICA’s 3rd anniversary conference, “the largest international arbitration event ever held in Pakistan, with over 170 delegates including arbitrators, counsel academics, entrepreneurs, engineers and high-ranking current and former government officials”:
Op-ed of CIICA’s President on what Pakistan needs to do to improve its abysmal record in international arbitration:
CIICA is proud to be a supporting organization for the Asian-African Legal Consultative Organization (AALCO) Annual Arbitration Forum 2018
CIICA is proudly supporting the AALCO Annual Arbitration Forum 2018 being organized by AALCO and the Asian International Arbitration Centre (AIAC) in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, on 21st and 22nd July, 2018.
CIICA’S 3rd ANNIVERSARY CONFERENCE
MAY 5, 2018
CIICA’s 3rd anniversary conference titled “International Arbitration in Pakistan: Past, Present and Future” organized in collaboration with UMT School of Law and Policy was the largest and most significant international arbitration conference ever held in Pakistan. It was a historic conference because it was also the first conference in Pakistan that was supported by United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) Regional Centre for Asia and the Pacific. It also commemorated the 6th anniversary of the UNCITRAL Regional Centre for Asia and the Pacific and the 60th anniversary of the New York Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards. It brought together speakers from China, the U.K., Qatar, Italy, U.A.E. and the U.S. as well as Pakistani Judges, academics, lawyers, government officials, and members of the business community. The full-day conference had sessions on Pakistan’s legal framework for international arbitration; arbitration in the energy and construction sectors; and dispute resolution mechanisms under the China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) framework. The keynote speaker of the conference was Mr. Justice Jawad Hassan, Judge, Lahore High Court.
On behalf of the Center for International Investment and Commercial Arbitration (CIICA) and UMT School of Law and Policy (SLP), we are pleased to invite you to CIICA’s 3rd Anniversary Conference being held on May 5th in Lahore, Pakistan.
The United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) Regional Centre for Asia and the Pacific, the Shanghai International Arbitration Center (SHIAC) and the Hangzhou Arbitration Commission are supporting organizations for this conference.
This conference will also commemorate the 6th anniversary of the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) Regional Centre for Asia and the Pacific and the 60th anniversary of the New York Convention on the Recognition Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards. It will bring together lawyers from the U.K., the U.S.A., China, Italy, and Qatar; and Pakistani judges, academics, lawyers, government officials, and members of the business community. The conference will provide a forum for discussing and analyzing Pakistan’s legal framework for international arbitration with a focus on certain international arbitration cases in which Pakistan has been involved; arbitration in the energy and construction sectors; and mechanisms for resolution of disputes under the China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) framework.
Please mark your calendar and save the date. We will share the detailed conference program shortly.
SEMINAR ON RESOLUTION OF TRADE, COMMERCIAL AND INVESTMENT DISPUTES
On April 25, 2018, CIICA in collaboration with the Board of Investment, Pakistan organized a seminar at the Lahore Chamber of Commerce and Industry (LCCI) on the resolution of trade, commercial and investment disputes. Speakers including the Vice President of LCCI, Director, Board of Investment (BOI) and CIICA’s President discussed the importance of mediation and arbitration for effective resolution of disputes. CIICA’s President also stressed the importance of capacity building among business owners in the area of international arbitration
CIICA’S PRESIDENT INVITED TO CONDUCT A WORKSHOP ON NEGOTIATION STRATEGIES AND ALTERNATIVE DISPUTE RESOLUTION (ADR) AT THE LUMS HR CONFLUENCE EVENT
8th JUDICIAL CONFERENCE INVITATION
The Law & Justice Commission of Pakistan (LJCP) under the auspices of National Judicial (Policy Making) Committee (chaired by the Chief Justice of Pakistan) has invited CIICA’s President, Mr. Rana Sajjad, to participate in a group discussion on Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) methodologies at the 8th Judicial Conference in Islamabad.
CIICA PRESIDENT APPROVED TO BE A MEMBER OF CIArb’s APPROVED FACULTY LIST
CIICA President, Mr. Rana Sajjad, approved to be a member of the Approved Faculty List (AFL) of The Chartered Institute of Arbitrators (CIArb) as a tutor for domestic and international arbitration law, practice and procedure. CIArb is the world’s leading professional body for promoting the settlement of disputes by arbitration, mediation and other private dispute resolution methods.
CIICA President, Mr. Rana Sajjad’s article on China’s Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) dispute resolution mechanisms and choosing an effective mechanism for the China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) framework:
CIICA’s President, Mr. Rana Sajjad, writes the first article on Pakistan in the International Journal of Arab Arbitration (IJAA) titled “Pakistan’s legal Framework for International Arbitration and Seminal Judgments of the Supreme Court”:
CIICA pleased to be one of the supporting organizations for the CIArb Asia Pacific Diploma In International Commercial Arbitration in July-August, 2018 in Perth, Australia
Please click here to download brochure.
CIICA’s President, Mr. Rana Sajjad, invited to speak on institutional arbitration at the 3rd Provincial Judicial Conference organized by the Sindh Judicial Academy
Mr. Rana Sajjad’s talk/presentation covered institutional arbitration and how it could enhance access to justice and facilitate litigants. The conference was part of the Sindh Judicial Academy’s “Vision for Justice: 2027” project aimed at bringing together all stakeholders of the justice sector to find ways to facilitate litigants. All provincial Chief Justices and the Chief Justice of Pakistan participated in the conference:
World Justice Project (WJP) chooses CIICA as one of the leading organizations in Pakistan working towards civil justice
WJP is the world’s leading database on rule of law. Civil justice is one of WJP’s Rule of Law index factors that recognizes the value of Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) mechanisms and measures the accessibility, impartiality and efficiency of mediation and arbitration systems that enable parties to resolve civil disputes:
CIICA’s President, Mr. Rana Sajjad, recommended as Pakistan’s international arbitration expert by Global Law Experts (GLE)
GLE is the only organization that recommends just one legal expert in each key practice area and country:
CIICA President’s op-ed on the importance of effective dispute resolution methods under the China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) framework:
October 26-27, 2017
THE 2nd GLOBAL CROSS-BORDER E-COMMERCE SUMMIT, HANGZHOU, CHINA
At the Second Global E-Commerce Summit in Hangzhou, China, Mr. Rana Sajjad, President of CIICA, signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) between CIICA and the Hangzhou Arbitration Commission.
Hangzhou is often referred to as China’s Silicon Valley because of the high number of technology/internet companies located within the Hangzhou Economic & Technological Development Zone. Hangzhou Arbitration Commission is one of the key dispute resolution bodies in eastern China and its MoU with CIICA focuses on collaboration between the two organizations on resolution of disputes involving Pakistani and Chinese parties. This is another step towards CIICA’s global connectivity of dispute resolution centers and this alliance, the first between a Pakistani and Chinese dispute resolution center, is significant in view of the substantial Chinese investment coming into Pakistan under the China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) framework.
Mr. Rana Sajjad also spoke at this summit as a member of the international arbitration panel on innovations and improvements in E-commerce dispute resolution.
October 21, 2017: OBOR/CPEC Conference
CIICA and the School of Law and Policy (SLP) jointly organized a conference on October 21st entitled “OBOR and CPEC: The Resolution of Commercial and Investment Disputes,” on the implications of China’s One Belt One Road (OBOR) initiative and the China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) framework with a focus on dispute resolution and whether or not there are any efficient and effective methods for resolution of such disputes in Pakistan.
This conference brought together lawyers from Pakistan, Singapore and the U.K., representatives of Pakistani and Chinese business communities, engineers, economists, policy makers and government officials. The conference provided a forum for discussing and analyzing the relevant issues involved in current and prospective disputes in connection with the substantial Chinese investment under the OBOR, in general, and CPEC, in particular.
OBOR AND CPEC: THE RESOLUTION OF COMMERCIAL AND INVESTMENT DISPUTES
On behalf of Center for International Investment and Commercial Arbitration (CIICA) and UMT School of Law and Policy (SLP), we are pleased to invite you to attend a conference on the implications of China’s One Belt One Road (OBOR) initiative and China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) framework for the resolution of commercial and investment disputes and whether or not there are any efficient and effective alternative methods for resolution of such disputes in Pakistan.
The conference will bring together prominent lawyers from Pakistan, UK, and Singapore; representatives of Pakistani and Chinese business communities; and government officials. The conference will provide a forum for discussing and analyzing the relevant issues involved in current and prospective disputes in connection with the substantial Chinese investment under the OBOR, in general, and CPEC, in particular.
3:00 pm – 4:00 pm
Coffee and Registration
4:00 pm – 4:10 pm
Welcome Remarks and Introduction
Rana Sajjad Ahmad
Founder & President, CIICA
Syed Imad ud Din Asad
Founding Director, SLP
4:10 – 4:20 pm
Overview of CPEC
President, Pak-China Joint Chamber of Commerce and Industry
4:20 pm – 5:40 pm
Session 1: Effective Methods for Resolution of OBOR and CPEC Disputes
Francis Xavier SC
Regional Head, Disputes Practices, Rajah & Tann;
Vice President, Inter Pacific Bar Association;
Former Chairman (Singapore Branch), Chartered Institute of Arbitrators
Prime Minister’s Performance Delivery Unit, Prime Minister’s Office
Makhdoom Ali Khan
Advocate, Supreme Court of Pakistan;
Former Attorney General of Pakistan
Engr. Zafar Siddiqui
CEO, Engineering and Management Services;
Member, Chartered Institute of Arbitrators (CIArb)
Saadia Bhatty (MCIArb; Esq.)
Counsel, Gide Loyrette Nouel
Member, Chartered Institute of Arbitrators
Member, New York Bar
Dr. Nadia Farooq
Acting Policy Head
Finance & Financial Integration under CPEC
CPEC Center of Excellence
Pakistan Institute of Development Economics (PIDE)
5:40 – 6:00 pm
6:00 pm – 7:20 pm
Session 2: Types of Disputes under CPEC and Potential Synergies for Collaboration between Arbitration and Mediation Institutions in Pakistan and China
Justice (Retd.) Arif Hussain Khilji
President, National Centre for Dispute Resolution;
Director General, Sindh Judicial Academy;
Former Justice, Supreme Court of Pakistan
Former President, Pak-China Joint Chamber of Commerce and Industry
Barrister and Arbitrator, XXIV Old Buildings
London, United Kingdom
Advocate, Supreme Court of Pakistan;
Former President, Supreme Court Bar Association
Partner, RIAA Barker Gillette
Director, Board of Investment
7:20 pm – 7:30 pm
Rana Sajjad Ahmad
Founder & President, CIICA
7:30 pm – 9:00 pm
As there is limited space, please confirm your participation, at the earliest, by sending an email to email@example.com..
CIICA’s President conducts a two-day training course in arbitration and legal drafting at the Lahore High Court
The course was part of CIICA’s efforts to build capacity of Pakistani lawyers in arbitration, both domestic and international.
CIICA President’s op-ed on the ICSID award of $700 million against the Government of Pakistan in connection with the Rental Power Plants (RPP) dispute with Karkey Karadeniz Elektrik Uretim, a Turkish rental power plants company:
Mr. Gary Born joins CIICA’s Panel of Arbitrators
Mr. Gary Born is the chair of the International Arbitration Practice Group. at Wilmer Hale and the President of the Singapore International Arbitration Center (SIAC) Court of Arbitration. He is widely regarded as the world’s preeminent authority on international commercial arbitration and international litigation and has been ranked for the past 20 years as one of the world’s leading international arbitration practitioners.
CIICA’s President attends the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) Young Arbitrators Forum (YAF) 6th Global Conference in New York
May 19, 2017
Global Arbitration Review (GAR) report entitled “Winds of change in Pakistan” on the groundbreaking events organized and co-organized by CIICA
May 10, 2017
CIICA President’s op-ed on the importance of the groundbreaking events organized by CIICA for the capacity building of Pakistani lawyers in international arbitration
April 29, 2017
First-ever Young International Council for Commercial Arbitration (ICCA) workshop in Pakistan organized in collaboration with CIICA, LUMS and Clyde & Co
Young ICCA in collaboration with and the support of CIICA, LUMS and Clyde & Co, held a Skills Training Workshop at LUMS, Lahore. The topic of the workshop was “Written Advocacy in International Arbitration” and it was conducted by ten speakers over two panels. Rana Sajjad, President CIICA, moderated the first panel on “How to Prepare Persuasive Written Pleadings”. Speakers of the workshop included Toby Landau QC, Barrister, Essex Court Chambers, Francis Xavier SC, Partner at Rajah & Tann, Saadia Bhatty, Associate at Clyde & Co, London, Mansoor Khan, Partner at Khan & Associates, Zafar Kalanauri, Adjunct Faculty Member, LUMS and Samar Abbas, Barrister, 39 Essex Chambers.
International Commercial Arbitration: Capacity Building and Opportunities for Pakistani Lawyers
On April 28, 2017, CIICA organized a groundbreaking conference at the Lahore High Court on the importance of capacity building of Pakistani lawyers in international arbitration.
Toby Landau QC, Barrister Essex Court Chambers, Francis Xavier SC, Partner, Rajah & Tann and Saadia Bhatty, Associate, Clyde & Co. were among the speakers at the event. The speakers talked about the importance of capacity building in international arbitration and the importance of an institution like CIICA in furthering this objective. The other speakers included the President of the Lahore High Court Bar Association, Vice Chairman, Pakistan Bar Council and Director, Board of Investment, Prime Minister’s Office, Government of Pakistan. Speakers appreciated CIICA’s mission and vision and also emphasized the importance of strengthening investor confidence in Pakistan to bolster Pakistan’s reputation in the international community.
Besides highlighting CIICA’s vision and objectives, the event provided a forum for understanding international commercial and investment arbitration in general and with respect to Pakistan in particular. The pool of attendees primarily included lawyers of the Lahore High Court Bar and Supreme Court Bar and also included in house counsel, bankers and representatives of Board of Investment (BOI), Pakistan.
Rana Sajjad, President CIICA, highlighted how this groundbreaking conference had set in motion the important process of capacity building of Pakistani lawyers in international arbitration and the overwhelming response and great turnout was a testament to the success of the conference.
Talk on the importance of capacity building of Judges for facilitation of arbitration proceedings in Pakistan
CIICA organized a talk on the importance of capacity building and training Judges for facilitation of arbitral proceedings and enforcement of arbitral awards on April 8, 2017 at CIICA.
In his introductory remarks, CIICA’s President, Rana Sajjad, while introducing the speaker, mentioned that it is a unique talk because to his knowledge, capacity building of Judges has not been discussed in detail in the context of arbitral proceedings in Pakistan. He also mentioned that capacity building in the area of arbitration in particular and ADR in general is one of CIICA’s objectives and he was pleased that someone directly associated with judicial training was speaking on the topic.
Mrs. Uzma Chughtai, Director General of Punjab Judicial Academy, an academy set up for training of judicial officers all over Punjab, gave a detailed and insightful talk on the importance of capacity building and training of Judges. Mrs. Chughtai outlined the training methodology of Punjab Judicial Academy and emphasized the importance of arbitration and other ADR methods including mediation for resolution of disputes. Mrs. Chughtai referred to specific instances during her extensive experience as a Judge to highlight the significance of a Judge’s attitude and conduct during the course of court proceedings for effective resolution of disputes. The talk was followed by a lively Q& A session in which the critical role of Judges was discussed from the standpoint of prompt resolution of disputes.
In his closing remarks, CIICA’s President, Rana Sajjad, thanked Mrs. Chughtai for her informative and insightful talk.
CIICA’s President’s op-ed/article on the recent ICSID decision against Pakistan in the Reko Diq arbitration matter:
CIICA establishes Young Arbitration Group (YAG)
CIICA has established the Young Arbitration Group (YAG) with the aim of bringing together young lawyers, law students, and young members of the business community and government sector who have a keen interest and/or background in arbitration. Membership is open to law students, practitioners, in-house counsel, academics, government employees, and other younger members of the business community under the age of 45.
CIICA’s President invited to speak at a conference on arbitration in Pakistan
CIICA’s President was invited to participate in a panel discussion on arbitration in Pakistan. In his talk, the President spoke about the legal framework for international arbitration and domestic arbitration in Pakistan and how CIICA offers the advantages of institutional arbitration for resolution of commercial and investment disputes within Pakistan.
CIICA enters into an MoU with the London Centre of International Law Practice (LCILP)
The scope of activities intended by CIICA and LCILP under the MoU include training programs, joint conferences, consultancy and policy advice and collaborating on cases.
CIICA enters into a collaboration agreement with the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) Arbitration Council
The objectives of the agreement include facilitation of resolution of commercial, trade and investment disputes between SAARC Member States.
Op-ed of CIICA’s President on the legal ramifications of a unilateral withdrawal from the Indus Waters Treaty:
CIICA becomes a Global Partner to the Global Pound Conference (GPC) series
The objective of the GPC series is to facilitate the development of 21st century commercial dispute resolution tools at domestic, regional and international levels. Its global partners include leading international organizations such as the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC), International Bar Association (IBA) and the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO).
Mr. Mark Kantor joins CIICA’s panel of arbitrators
Mr. Kantor is a member of the American Arbitration Association Commercial and International Panels, the AAA’s Large Complex Case Roster, the AAA/ICDR’s Energy Arbitrators List, the ICC Arbitrator Database, The Chartered Institute of Arbitrators, the London Court of International Arbitration list of arbitrators, the rosters of arbitrators of the Hong Kong, Singapore and Kuala Lumpur International Arbitration Centres, the CPR Panel of Distinguished Neutrals for Banking and Finance, the CPR International Panel and the CPR Energy Committee. He is also a Chartered Arbitrator of The Chartered Institute of Arbitrators.
CIICA’s President spoke at the International Legal Ethics conference at Fordham University School of Law, New York. His talk was primarily about the legal education system in Pakistan in the broader context of legal ethics. He discussed effective methods including experiential learning for teaching legal ethics.
– CIICA’s President attends the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC), Young Arbitrators Forum (YAF) North America Regional conference in Washington DC on important policy issues related to arbitration including the suitability of class arbitration and ex parte confirmation of arbitration awards.
– CIICA’s President attends the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC), Young Arbitrators Forum (YAF) conference in Dubai on fostering efficiency and transparency in the arbitration process.
– CIICA invited by the Trade Dispute Resolution Organization (TDRO), Ministry of Commerce, Pakistan, to participate in the Public Private Dialogue on the TDRO Draft Law in Islamabad.
– CIICA officials attend the Pakistan Investment Conference organized by the Board of Investment (BOI), Pakistan in Islamabad.
– CIICA prepares a report for the Board of Investment (BOI), Pakistan, on the current legislative framework and the forums for resolution of investment-related disputes in Pakistan
– CIICA’s President invited by the Trade Dispute Resolution Organization (TDRO), Ministry of Commerce, Pakistan, to speak at the Karachi Chamber of Commerce & Industry (KCCI)
CIICA’s President was invited by TDRO to give a presentation at KCCI on contracts in international trade and commerce with a focus on relevant terms including the dispute resolution clause. The other speakers included representatives of government agencies including the Trade Development Authority of Pakistan (TDAP) and KCCI who discussed the challenges involved in international trade and resolution of trade-related disputes.
CIICA’s President meets with representatives of ICC, AAA, JAMS and NYIAC in New York
CIICA’s President had a series of meetings in New York with representatives of the world’s leading international arbitral institutions/organizations including the International Court of Arbitration (ICA) of the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC), the New York International Arbitration Center (NYIAC), JAMS and the American Arbitration Association’s International Centre for Dispute Resolution (ICDR). The primary objective of the meetings was to give a brief introduction to CIICA and discuss its vision and objectives.
CIICA invited by the Trade Dispute Resolution Organization (TDRO), Ministry of Commerce, Pakistan
CIICA received an invitation from TDRO to give a presentation at a seminar on revamping of the trade dispute resolution mechanism in Pakistan. The objectives of this seminar included discussing the weaknesses of the current dispute resolution mechanism and seeking views and suggestions on drafting a viable and effective trade dispute resolution law for Pakistan.
– Op-ed of CIICA’s President on the importance of international arbitration for Pakistan and CIICA’s objectives (May 26, 2015):
– Reko Diq proceedings: One of the fundamental issues is whether or not the Balochistan government can give/transfer any mining rights in connection with the Reko Diq copper and gold mines in view of the ICSID tribunal’s order of December, 2012 (May 5, 2015):
– News story on CIICA’s inaugural event published in “The News”, one of Pakistan’s English newspapers (April 15, 2015):
– Lexis Nexis article on the state of arbitration in Pakistan and CIICA (April 9, 2015):
– CIICA’s Founder & President talks about CIICA and its formal inauguration on Din News, one of Pakistan’s television news channels, a couple of days before CIICA’s inaugural event (April 8, 2015):
– Pakistan’s Board of Investment (BOI) is working on its own Bilateral Investment Treaty (BIT) template (March 2, 2015):
The Board of Investment is working on Pakistan’s own template of a bilateral investment treaty with the aim of replacing the existing treaties with different countries. In terms of the dispute resolution clause in this template, mediation would be made compulsory and foreign arbitrators would be decided in advance through mutual agreement:
– Government of Pakistan expected to seek the Supreme Court’s advice on the ICC and ICSID proceedings in the Reko Diq matter (February 11, 2015):
Government of Pakistan is expected to seek the Supreme Court’s advice on the ICC and ICSID arbitral proceedings in connection with the Reko Diq matter. It will be interesting to see how the Supreme Court advises the government considering that in January of 2013, the Supreme Court declared the Chagai Hills Exploration Joint Venture Agreement (CHEJVA) with Tethyan Copper Company (TCC) null and void.
– Pakistan to move the ICJ against the construction of five hydropower projects by India (February 9, 2015):
Pakistan is expected to initiate proceedings against India in the International Court of Justice (ICJ) in connection with construction of five hydropower projects by India on the Chenab and Jhelum rivers in Kashmir. Under the provisions of the Indus Water Treaty 1960 between Pakistan and India, the waters of the eastern rivers, Sutlej, Beas and Ravi, were allocated to India and the western rivers, Indus, Jhelum and Chenab, were allocated to Pakistan with the exception of certain uses allowed to India that included generation of hydropower as long as it did not alter the water flow.
CIICA’s participation in a conference on arbitration